Le rap est une forme d’expression vocale, un des cinq piliers du mouvement culturel et musical hip-hop, ayant émergé au milieu des années 1970 dans les ghettos aux États-Unis. Le rap consiste le plus souvent en une succession de couplets rimés séparés par des refrains, accompagnés de rythmes (notamment beat, scratching, échantillonnage). Influencé par d’autres genres musicaux (blues, et jazz, rock), le rap acquiert une popularité de plus en plus grande au fil des années 1980. Aux premières heures, les MCs (Master of Ceremony) servaient juste à soutenir les DJ, et les parties rappées étaient simplement appelées MC-ing (emceeing).

source : Wikipedia

Rapping (or rhyming, spitting, emceeing, MCing) is a musical form of vocal delivery that incorporates « rhyme, rhythmic speech, and street vernacular », which is performed or chanted in a variety of ways, usually over a backbeat or musical accompaniment. The components of rap include « content » (what is being said), « flow » (rhythm, rhyme), and « delivery » (cadence, tone). Rap differs from spoken-word poetry in that rap is usually performed in time to an instrumental track. Rap is often associated with, and is a primary ingredient of hip-hop music, but the origins of the phenomenon predate hip-hop culture. The earliest precursor to the modern rap is the West African griot tradition, in which « oral historians », or « praise-singers », would disseminate oral traditions and genealogies, or use their formidable rhetorical techniques for gossip or to « praise or critique individuals. » Griot traditions connect to rap along a lineage of Black verbal reverence that goes back to ancient Egyptian practices, through James Brown interacting with the crowd and the band between songs, to Muhammad Ali’s quick-witted verbal taunts and the palpitating poems of the Last Poets. Therefore, rap lyrics and music are part of the « Black rhetorical continuum », and aim to reuse elements of past traditions while expanding upon them through « creative use of language and rhetorical styles and strategies. The person credited with originating the style of « delivering rhymes over extensive music », that would become known as rap, was Anthony « DJ Hollywood » Holloway from Harlem, New York.

source : Wikipedia